Tag Archives: digital identity management

A Digital CV for the 21st Century… powered by Blockchain

This is a poster I presented at the Connacht-Ulster Alliance (CUA) Research Symposium held on the 16-17th January 2020 at The Sligo Park Hotel.

The poster outlines the research problem around the issue, verification and sharing of digital academic credentials and the current process. It goes on to propose a research question and potential future process while also providing an quick overview of Blockchain.

A Digital CV for the 21st century powered by Blockchain
A Digital CV for the 21st century powered by Blockchain

A Digital System for the Authentication of Education Credentials

Authentication of Education Credentials

The past decade has seen an explosion in the availability of and demand for online courses. The availability has been fuelled by the rapid expansion of The World Wide Web and Internet availability as well as a move towards Web 2.0 technologies. The most startling development has been that of the MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) with many courses being offered free of charge, targeting soft as well as hard skills. These courses are massive in that they have extremely large enrolments by traditional educational standards, are open to all and one hundred percent online attracting a global student audience. Over time the product offerings of many of the MOOC Providers (Udacity, Udemy and many others) expanded to provide paid-for major awards such as “nanodegrees” particularly in technology disciplines such as software development, artificial intelligence and machine learning. Many of these companies formed strategic alliances with traditional universities to provide formal academic qualifications (Thrun, 2013). The Open University UK founded FutureLearn in December 2012 with 11 traditional UK universities as founding partners to expand their offerings and broaden their reach. As of May 2018 the Open University in the UK has partnered with over 143 UK and international partners, including many traditional universities through FutureLearn (Futurelearn, 2015).

The demand for these courses has also much to do with the growing acknowledgement that we live in an era of lifelong learning and that individuals will expect to carry on their learning throughout their working life. It is also clear that employers are in fact demanding almost constant upskilling and reskilling for their employees to meet the needs of enterprise. In the fast-paced world of modern business, gaining new knowledge ahead of the competition, especially from a technology perspective can be the difference between success and failure. In a recent report from the Irish Government on the Future of Jobs in Ireland (Ireland, 2019) entitled “Preparing Now for Tomorrow’s Economy”, they state that while the economy is in a strong position having recovered from the financial crisis, there are significant vulnerabilities in the domestic economy such as declining productivity levels for SMEs. A key factor in this demise are skills deficits amongst the labour force and availability of labour with the required skills. The report goes on to state that while the future is uncertain, it’s clear that by 2025 the economy will have changed significantly and this will bring both opportunity and challenges. One of the key challenges are the skills required for this new economic paradigm as technology will herald new ways of doing business and new economic opportunities – certain job roles will disappear or be redefined and emerging job roles will require new and different skillsets altogether. In particular they cite cutting edge technological areas such as Artificial Intelligence, Augmented and Virtual Reality, Data Analytics, the Internet of Things and Blockchain. This is a strategic imperative to ensure highly productive, sustainable workforce that will be resilient into the future.

Traditional third-level institutions are also playing their part in the provision of skills development courses available in a flexible manner to suit individuals in the workplace. Through the Government of Ireland Springboard initiative which was initiated in response to the financial crisis of 2008 to reskill workers who found themselves unemployed and unemployable during the recession which followed. That programme was instrumental in reducing the live register from a peak of 15% in 2011 down to less than 4% in 2017. The Springboard programme however has continued and is now about reskilling and upskilling a largely employed cohort of individuals. Through Springboard courses are offered to participants by third level institutions both public and private. As most participants are working, courses are predominantly delivered in a fully online or blended model.

The issuance of academic credentials has for many years been a paper-based mechanism administrated by the awarding institutions. The “parchment” is a time-old tradition which marks the achievement of a qualification with a degree of ceremony to which it deserves. In practice the official documentation takes the form of a transcript of student results often accompanied by a certificate and more often than not in the 21st century delivered by electronic means. The turn-around time for academic transcripts is often far too slow with a lengthy verification process which can take weeks from the time of the original request to the time the requesting agent receives them. There is an increasing pressure from all involved to provide these transcripts in a timely fashion, including the awarding body themselves as it is becoming an increasingly onerous administrative task. Some institutions are relying on pdf format transcripts appended with electronic signatures but the method is vulnerable to forgery. The increasing volume of courses available coupled with rising demand from enterprise and individuals alike is placing increasing pressure on education providers to come up with a solution.

Over the past decade a number of organisations are seeking to provide recognition of formal academic qualifications in the form of digital certificates and formal (or informal) short courses in the form of digital badges or micro-credentials (Jirgensons and Kapenieks, 2018). Mozilla’s open digital badges have become the unofficial global standard and is built on an open standard. However, the system is dependent on trust in the system and the member educational institutes who provide verification. Badges could become “orphaned” or worse turn into “zombie” badges when issuers no longer want or are unable to host them, the badges have to be supported by a network of trust. Some experiments with blockchain seek to remedy this situation by creating a permanent, secure and sustainable infrastructure for educational credentials. The MIT Media Lab has produced Blockcerts (Blockcerts, 2019) built on the Bitcoin blockchain and the Open University in the UL has developed Digital Badges which they call Micro- credentials built on the Ethereum blockchain utilising smart contracts. Both are Open Source products. Many other EU nations are experimenting with educational blockchain. The University of Nicosia in Cyprus is one of the first universities in the world that provides full blockchain credentials including all certificates and diplomas. The University also boasts of being the number one in the world for blockchain education (Jirgensons and Kapenieks, 2018). It also accepts Bitcoin for application and tuition payments. The UNIC blockchain infrastructure is built using the MIT Blockcerts implementation (Grech and Camilleri, 2017). There are many other pilot projects either completed or underway across the EU although the researcher is unaware of any pilot projects underway in Ireland.

Trust implications for the provision of digital badges

Poorly implemented badging systems have the potential to create an ethical and possibly legal quandry where learners will quickly lose trust and the system is doomed to fail. When a digital badge becomes a credential of learner achievement, be it large or small, the issues of value, acceptance and trust begin to arise (Ifenthaler et al., 2016). The value of a badging system in education requires the establishment of trust and support across an ever-widening range of stakeholders involved.

Blockchain is emerging as a way to generate networks where validity, trust and accountability can be created. The blockchain is an open, public, decentralised and secure digital registry where information transactions are secured and have a clear origin, explicit relationships and concrete value (Funk et al., 2018).

Placing the learner at the centre

The ultimate beneficiary of the certificate of achievement is the learner and as such it’s important that the learner is in control of their achievement data. Many proponents of digital badging in education assert the view that we must think about the badges in the context of learning analytics – that it’s ultimately “student data” about themselves

and they should have the ability to display, sort, shuffle or filter according to their needs, especially with the advent of the ardent lifelong learner whose “Digital CV” may become unwieldy as they progress through their career (Ifenthaler et al., 2016). Again, blockchain has the potential to put the user in control of the data about themselves, they will have their own digital wallet and given the decentralised nature of the blockchain network, no single central authority has control.

References

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BLOCKCERTS. 2019. Blockchain Credentials [Online]. Available: http://blockcerts.org/ [Accessed March 2019]. BUTERIN, V. 2013. A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform.
CAMERON, K. 2005. The Laws of Identity.
CASINO, F., DASAKLIS, T. K. & PATSAKIS, C. 2019. A systematic literature review of blockchain-based applications: Current status, classification and open issues. Telematics and informatics., 36, 55-81. COINMARKETCAP. 2019. Cryptocurrency Market Capitalizations | CoinMarketCap [Online]. Available: https://coinmarketcap.com/ [Accessed March 2019].
DUNPHY, P. & PETITCOLAS, F. A. P. 2018. A First Look at Identity Management Schemes on the Blockchain. IEEE security & privacy., 16, 20-29.
FUNK, E., RIDDELL, J., ANKEL, F. & CABRERA, D. 2018. Blockchain Technology. Academic medicine journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges., 93, 1791-1794.
FUTURELEARN 2015. Twelve top British universities have signed up to Futurelearn, a new programme offeringfree degree-style online courses to the public in direct competition with US-led rivals Coursera and EdX.
GRECH, A. & CAMILLERI, A. F. 2017. Blockchain in Education. Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union 2017, 132 S. – (JRC Science for Policy Report).
IFENTHALER, D., BELLIN-MULARSKI, N., MAH, D.-K., WILLIS, J. E., FLINTOFF, K. & MCGRAW, B. 2016. A Philosophy of Open Digital Badges. 81-40.
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JIRGENSONS, M. & KAPENIEKS, J. 2018. Blockchain and the Future of Digital Learning Credential Assessment and Management. Journal of teacher education for sustainability., 20, 145-156.
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Nobody knows you're a dog!

Born on the Block

“On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog.” So goes the caption to Peter Steiner’s famous cartoon which appeared in the July 1993 edition of the New Yorker magazine, just two years after Sir Tim Berners Lee gave us the World Wide Web and the now ubiquitous web browser. Our lives have been changed dramatically since that invention, however as we approach 30 years of the Internet, we do not have a solution for Digital Identity Management that is fit for purpose. An ever-increasing amount of our lives are going online. What began as Ecommerce, online shopping and travel booking has progressed quickly to banking, healthcare, government services and many others being added every day. The advent of Cloud services has only accelerated this digital transformation – our lives will never be the same again. The average Internet user has over 90 accounts to manage with more on the way, passwords proliferate and barely a week passes by without news of another hack where millions of users details are lost or stolen. We urgently need a solution, one that puts the user in control of their own identity and their digital destiny. Much of the technology exists to help solve this conundrum, however perhaps the one key missing ingredient may finally have arrived. No one central agency should control our digital lives and Blockchain, the technology underpinning Bitcoin may have the answer, a tamperproof, secure and verifiable identity for everyone, even if you’re a dog. We are proposing an action research proposal using Blockchain for student identity to use in the storage, verification and distribution of Academic Credentials including digital badges to present an online trusted transcript – a digital CV for the 21st century.

cartoon: courtesy of Peter Steiner https://www.plsteiner.com/